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Wildflowers in the Great National Wildlife Refuge

 

 




Containing approximately 7,500 acres of marsh, hardwood swamp, upland timber, streams and ponds, brush, and grassland, Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge is home for a great variety of plants and animals. With careful protection and management, the refuge, surrounded by urban and suburban areas, is becoming increasingly important for many kinds of wildlife.

By means of trails, blinds and habitat manipulation, refuge visitors are provided excellent opportunities for wildlife observation and study. So that others may enjoy the wildlife of Great Swamp, now and in the future, your attention to our posted regulations will be appreciated.

Surveys of Great Swamp plant life have identified several hundred species of trees, shrubs, aquatic plants, ferns, sedges, grasses, and other forms of plant life. This is a partial list of flowering plants in order of their seasonal appearance and according to the color of their blossoms. Some varieties occur in more than one season. Though Oxeye Daisy, for example, is listed here with spring flowers, this plant also frequents fields and roadsides during summer.

The following list was prepared in cooperation with Drs. Robert K. and Florence M. Zuck, professors at Drew University and longtime amateur botanist Robert J. Johnson. References for both common and scientific names were the guide books of Rickett, Newcomb, Peterson, Niering, Grimm, and Reed.

SPRING (March April May)

White/Green

 

  Anemone, Rue

Thalictrum thalictroides

  Anemone, Wood

Anemone quinquefolia

  Bedstraw, Claytonís

Galium tinctorium

  Bedstraw, Marsh

Galium palustre

  Blackberry, Alleghany

Rubus allegheniensis

  Campion, White

Silene latifolia

  Chickweed

Stellaria media

  Clover, White

Trifolium repens

  Bittercress, Meadow.

Cardamine pratensis

  Daisy, Oxeye

Leucanthemum vulgare

  Dogwood, Flowering

Cornus florida

  Fleabane, White-top

Erigeron annuus

  Foamflower, Heart-leaf

Tiarella cordifolia

  Garlic Mustard

Aliaria officinalis

  Ginseng

Panax quinquefolius

  Hellebore, False

Veratrum viride

  Jack-in-the-pulpit, Swamp

Arisaema triphyllum

  Lily-of-the-valley

Convallaria majuscuta

  Mayapple

Podophyllum peltatum

  Pussytoes

Antennaria neodioica

  Saxifrage, Swamp

Saxifraga pensylvanica

  Shadbush

Amelanchier canadensis

  Solomonís Seal, False

Smilacina racemosa

  Spring Beauty

Claytonia virginica

  Starflower

Trientalis borealis

  Star-of-Bethlehem

Ornithogalum umbellatum

  Strawberry

Fragaria virginiana

  Trailing Arbutus

Epigaea repens

  Trillium

Trillium grandiflorum

  Viburnun

Viburnum acerifolium

  Violet, Northern White

Viola pallens

  Violet, Lance-leaved

Viola lanceolata


Yellow/Orange

 

  Bellwort, Perfoliate

Uvularia perfoliatum

  Bladderwort, Greater

Utricularia vulgaris

  Buttercup, Tall

Ranunculus acris

  Buttercup, Swamp

Ranunculus septentrionalis

  Buttercup, Creeping

Ranunculus repens

  Celandine

Stylophorum diphyllum

  Cinquefoil, Common

Potentilla simplex

  Cinquefoil, Rough-fruited

Potentilla recta

  Coltsfoot

Tussilago farfara

  Cynthia

Krigia biflora

  Dwarf Dandelion

Taraxacum officionale

  Golden Ragwort

Senecio aureus

  Iris, Yello

Iris pseudocorus

  King Devil, or Field Hawkweed

Hieracium caespitsum

  Marsh Marigold

Caltha palustris

  Spatterdock

Nuphar luteva

  Trout Lily

Erythronium americanum

  Wild Indigo

Baptista tinctoria

  Winter Cress

Barbarea vulgaris

  Wood Sorrel

Oxalis stricta


Pink/Red

 

  Geranium.

Geranium maculatum

  Ginger

Asarum canadense

  Ladyís Slipper, Pink

Cypripedium acaule

  Pink Azalea

Rhododendron nudiflorum

  Wood Betony

Pedicularis canadensis


Purple/Blue

 

  Bluebell

Mertensa virginica

  Blue-eyed Grass

Sisyrinchium angustifolium

  Ground Ivy

Glechonia hederacea

  Hepatica, Round-lobed

Hepatica nobilis

  Iris, Blue Flag

Iris versicolor

  Iris, Slender

Iris prismatica

  Periwinkle

Vinca minor

  Purple Dead Nettle

Lamium purpurem

  Skunk Cabbage

Symplocarpus foetidus

  Spiderwort

Tradescantia virginiana

  Vetch

Vicia cracca

  Violet, LeConteís

Viola affnis

  Violet, Arrow-leaved.

Viola sagittata

  Violet, Marsh Blue

Viola cucullata


SUMMER (June ∑ Early August) 

White/Green

 

  Arrowhead.

Sagittaria latifolia

  Beardtongue

Penstemon digitalis

  Bindweed

Calystegia sepia

  Boneset

Eupatorium perfoliatum

  Bouncing Bet

Saponaria officinalis

  Bugleweed

Lycopus virginicus

  Bur-reed

Sparganium americanum

  Buttonbush

Cephalanthus occidentalis

  Elderberry

Sambacus canadensis

  Hemlock, Water

Cicuta maculata

  Honeysuckle, Swamp

Rhododendron viscosum

  Honeysuckle, Japanese

Lonicara japonica

  Indian Pipe

Monotropa uniflora

  Indian Hemp

Apocynum cannabium

  Laurel, Mountain

Kalmia latifolia

  Lizardís Tail

Saururus cernuus

  Rose-Mallow, Swamp

Hibiscus palustris

  Mallow, Musk

Malva moschata

  Meadow Rue

Thalictrum polygamum

  Meadowsweet

Spirea latifolia

  Mermaid Weed

Proserpinaca palustris

  Mountain-mint

Pycanthemum virginianum

  Multiflora Rose

Roas multiflora

  Orchid, Fringed

Habenaria lacera

  Pepperbush

Clethra alniflora

  Plantain, English

Plantago lanceolata

  Plantain, Rattlesnake

Goodyera pubescens

  Plantain, Water

Alisma subcordatum

  Pokeweed

Phytolacca americana

  Purslane, Marsh

Ludwigia, palustris

  Queen Anneís Lace

Daucus carota

  Rattlesnake Root

Prenanthes alba

  Sarsaparilla

Aralia nudicaulis

  Smartweed

Polygonum hydropiper

  Solomonís Seal

Polygonatum biflorum

  Sweet Cicely

Oxmorhize claytoni

  Sweet Clover, White

Melilotus alba

  Water Arum

Calla palustris

  Water Hemlock

Cicuta maculata

  Wintergreen, Spotted

Chimaphila maculata

  Yarrow

Achilea millefolium


Yellow/Orange

 

  Agrimony

Agrimonia parviflora

  Bartonia

Bartonia virginica

  Birdsfoot Trefoil

Lotus corniculatus

  Black-eyed Susan

Rudbeckia hirta

  Butter-and-eggs

Linaria vulgaris

  Butterflyweed

Asclepias tuberosa

  Canada Lily

Lilium canadense

  Cucumber Root, Indian

Medeola virginiana

  Day Lily

Hemerocallis fulva

  Evening Primrose

Oenothera biennis

  Goatsbeard

Aruncus dioicus

  Hawkweed, Orange

Hieracium aurantiacum

  Hop Clover

Trifolium agrarium

  Hop Clover, Smaller

Trifolium procumbens

  Jewelweed

Impatiens capensis

  Loosestrife, Fringed

Lysimachia ciliata

  Loosestrife, Whorled

Lysimachia quadrifolia

  Moneywort

Lysimachia nummularia

  Mullien, Common

Verbascum thapsus

  Mullien, Moth

Verbascum blattaria

  St. Johnsworth, Common

Hericum perforatum

  Scarlet Pimpernel

Anagallis arvensis

  Seedbox

Ludwigia alternifolia

  Sneezeweed

Helenium autumnale

  Sow Thistle

Sonchus oleraceus

  Stargrass

Hypoxis hirsuta

  Sundrops

Oenothera fruiticosa

  Sundrops, Small

Oenothera perennis

  Tansy

Tanacetum vulgare

  Swamp Candles

Lysimachia terrestris

  Sweet Clover, Yellow

Meliltus officinalis

  Turkís-cap Lily

Lilium superbum

  Golden Alexanders

Ziziz aurea


Pink/Red

  Azalea, Flame

Rhododendron caldeulaceum

  Bergamot

Monarda fistulosa

  Clover, Alsike.

Trifolium hybridum

  Deptford Pink

Dianthus armeria

  Knapweed, Spotted

Centaurea maculosa

  Rose Mallow, Swamp..

Hibiscus palustris

  Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca

  Milkweed, Swamp

Asclepias, incarnata

  Milkwort

Polygala sanguinea

  Partridgeberry

Mitchella repens

  Smartweed

Polygonum pensylvanicum

  Smartweed, Long-bristle 

Polygonum cespitosum

  Steeplebush 

Spirea tomentosa

  St. Johnswort, Marsh

Triadenum virginicum

  Swamp Rose

Rosa palustris

  Tearthumb, Arrow-leaved

Polygonum sagittatum

  Tearthumb, Halberd-leaved

Polygonum arifolium

  Teasel

Dispacus sylvestris

  Thistle, Bull

Cirsium vulgare

  Thistle, Field

Cirsium discolor

  Thistle, Canada

Cirsium arvense

  Thistle, Pasture

Cirsium pumilum

  Tick Trefoil

Desmodium canadense

  Tick Trefoil, Panicled

Desmodium paniculatum

  Wild Onion

Allium cernum

  Woundwort

Stachys palustris


Purple/Blue

 

  Asiatic Dayflower

Commelina communis

  Bittersweet

Solanum dulcamara

  Burdock

Arctium minus

  Chicory

Cichorium intybus

  Clover, Red

Trifolium pratense

  Dayflower

Commelina virginica

  Forget-me-not....

Myosotis scirpoides

  Indian Tobacco

Lobelia inflata

  Lobelia, Spiked

Lobelia Spicata

  Loosestrife, Purple

Lythrum salicaria

  Milkweed, Purple

Asclepias purpurascens

  Mint

Mentha arvensis

  Monkey Flower

Mimulus ringens

  Phlox

Phlox paniculata

  Pickerelweed

Ponditeria cordata

  Purple Hyssop.

Agastache scrophulariaefolia

  Selfheal

Prunella vulgaris

  Skullcap, Mad-dog

Scutellaria laterifolia

  Skullcap, Marsh

Scutellaria epilobiifolia

  Spearmint

Veronica scutellata

  Venusí Looking-glass

Specularia perfoliata

  Vervain, Blue

Verbena hastata

  Viperís Bugloss

Echium vulgare


AUTUMN (Late August September October) 

White/Green

 

  Aster, Small-flowered

Aster vimineus

  Aster, White wood

Aster divaricatus

  Aster, Calico

Aster lateriflorus

  Aster, Flat-top

Aster umbellatus

  Aster, Heath

Aster pilosus

  Aster, Trandescantís

Aster tradescanti

  Hempweed

Mikania scandens

  Ladiesí Tresses, Grass-leaved

Spiranthes vernalis

  Silver-rod.

Solidago bicolor

  Turtlehead

Chelone glabra

  Water-horehound

Lycopus americanus

  White Snakeroot

Eupatorium rugosum


Yellow/Orange

 

  Beggar Ticks

Bidens aristosa

  Goldenrod, Canada

Solidago canadensis

  Goldenrod, Early

Solidago juncea

  Goldenrod, Grass-leaved

Solidago graminifolia

  Goldenrod, Rough-leaf

Solidago patula

  Goldenrod, Rough-stemmed

Solidago rugosa

  Goldenrod, Tall

Solidago altissima

  Goldenrod, Rough-leaf

Solidago patula

  Goldenrod, Rough-stemmed

Solidago rugosa

  Goldenrod, Tall

Solidago altissima

  Goldenrod, Broad-leaved

Solidago flexicaulis

  Jerusalem Artichoke

Helianthus giganteus

  Sunflower, Giant.

Helianthus giganteus

  Witch Hazel

Hamamelis virginiana


Pink/Red

 

  Cardinal Flower

Lobelia cardinalis

  Gerardia, Purple

Gerardia purpurea

  Gerardia, White

Gerardia albiflora

  Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Eupatorium maculatum

  Joe-Pye Weed

Eupatorium dubium


Purple/Blue

  Aster, Bushy

Aster dumosus

  Aster, New England

Aster novae-angliae

  Aster, New England

Aster novae-angliae

  Aster, Purple-stemmed

Aster puniceus

  Aster, Smooth

Aster laevis

  Blazing Star

Liatris spicata

  Gentian, Fringe-topped

Gentiana andrewsii

  Ironweed, New York

Veronia noveboracensis

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Great Swamp is one of almost 500 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge System administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is a network of lands and waters managed specifically for the protection of wildlife habitat and represents the most comprehensive wildlife management program in the world. Units of the system stretch across the Untied States from northern Alaska to the Florida Keys and include small islands in the Caribbean and South Pacific. The character of the refuges is as diverse as the nation itself.

The Service also manages National Fish Hatcheries, and provides Federal leadership in habitat protection, fish and wildlife research, technical assistance and the conservation and protection of migratory birds, certain marine mammals and threatened and endangered species.

For further information, contact:

Refuge Manager
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
R.D. #1, Box 152
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920

Telephone: (973) 425-1222


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